烏拉圭總統-穆希卡的演講-Rio+20-2012-06-20

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感謝各位蒞臨會場的政府代表們。
今天感謝邀請我到這裡的巴西總統羅賽芙(Dilma Rousseff),還有感謝先前站在這裡做了精湛演講的每一位,各個代表國家的人,在這裡展現真誠的理想目標,做出對人類有必要性的決議。
但是,我腦中有個尖銳的疑問,從下午開始一直探討永續發展的可能性和如何消弭世界貧窮的議題,而我們真正想表達的心聲到底是什麼?是模仿現在富裕國家的發展和消費型態嗎?
我想問:德國人一戶人家的車子數量,若是印度人也同樣擁有的話,這個地球會變得如何?
能呼吸的氧氣還剩下多少呢?相同的問題換種方式來問的話,若是世界上70~80億的人口擁有和西方富裕國家相同的傲慢消費方式,這地球能夠提供如此龐大的原料嗎?有可能嗎?還是,那只是兩碼子的事情,屬於另一個議題呢?
為什麼我們創造出這樣的社會?
市場經濟的小孩,資本主義的小孩,一直以來,我們毫無疑問地創造了追求無止盡消費和發展的社會,市場經濟衍生市場社會,也就是放任全球化在世界各個角落不停地尋找原料的社會,不是嗎?
我們掌控了全球化嗎?或者該說,是全球化掌控了我們,不是嗎?
建立在如此殘酷競爭上的消費主義社會,有辦法討論「讓大家的世界變得美好」這樣共存共榮的話題嗎?到哪裡為止才是夥伴情誼?而從哪裡開始又是競爭敵手?我這麼說並不是為了批評這個活動的重要性,正好相反。我認為矗立在我們面前的巨大危機問題,並不是環境問題,而是政治的危機問題。
直到現代,人類並無法有效控制這股龐大勢力,相反地,人類被這樣的消費社會所控制了。我們並不是為了發展才誕生的,是為了變得幸福才來到地球的,人生短暫,稍縱即逝,沒有任何比生命更高貴的東西了。
過度消費正在摧毀世界,但是很多人的人生拚命追逐價格昂貴的商品和生活方式,在消費成為讓社會運轉的馬達的世界裡,我們只能一昧地快速地大量進行消費。消費一旦停止,經濟就會麻痺,經濟麻痺,經濟不景氣這怪物又會出現在大家面前了。
為了能夠支撐過度消費,而減少商品的壽命,盡可能地能賣出多少就賣多少,也就是說,明明能夠製造出壽命達十萬個小時的電燈泡,卻只賣持續照明一千個小時的電燈泡,變成了這樣的社會!人們為了有更多工作,為了賣出更多,所以要不停地維持著「用完後就丟掉的社會」,我們正身處這樣的惡性循環中,你注意到了嗎?這無疑地是政治問題,用不同的解決方式處理這樣的問題,是我們做為首腦必須領導整個世界的地方。
我並不是叫大家回到石器時代,是在說明必須要有效控制市場,在我謙虛的思維裡,我認為這是政治問題。
古代賢能者伊壁鳩魯(Epikouros)、塞內卡(Seneca)和南美的Aymara族都這麼說過:
「所謂的貧窮,並不是指擁有的東西少,而是懷著無止盡的欲望,卻永遠無法滿足的人。」
這是在我的議論中一個屬於較文化性質的關鍵詞。
我做為國家的代表者並懷抱著這樣的心情來參加里約會議的決議和討論,我想我的演講內容有很多不中聽的話語,但是我想讓大家知道的昰問題的來源並非單純是水源危機和環境危機。
根本上的問題是我們實施的社會型態,而且,必須要重新審視檢討我們的生活方式。
我是蘊藏著豐富環境資源的小國代表,在我的國家約有三百萬人左右的國民,但是卻有一千三百萬頭世界上最美味的牛在我的國家,也有約有八百萬到一千萬頭左右的羊,我的國家是食品的輸出國,這樣小的國家,領土的90%有豐富的資源。
國民裡面很勤勞的人一天拚命工作八小時,最近工作六小時的人也在逐漸增加,但是,做完六小時的工作後,還需要額外的工作,為什麼呢?因為必須支付機車、轎車等的分期付款或貸款,每個月加倍的工作,償還貸款,不知不覺就變成像我這樣的老人,和我一樣,幸福的人生眨眼間就過去了。
於是,我問自己一個問題:這是人類的命運嗎?對我來說,這是非常簡單的事情,所謂的發展不可以和幸福背道而馳,發展必須是朝著人類達到真正幸福的目標前進,愛、人際關係、照顧小孩、擁有朋友和擁有生活最低限度的東西。
因為幸福是我們最重要的東西,若真得要為了環境而奮鬥,不可以忘記幸福是人類最珍貴的原素。
謝謝大家的聆聽。

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To all of the authorities present here, from every latitude and organization, thank you very much. I want to thank the people of Brazil and Mrs. President, Dilma Rousseff. Thank you all for the good faith undoubtedly expressed by all of the speakers that preceded me.

We hereby express our innermost will as rulers, to adhere to all the agreements our wretched humanity, may chance to subscribe.

Notwithstanding, let us take this opportunity to ask some questions out loud. All afternoon long, we have been talking about sustainable development, about rescuing the masses from the claws of poverty.

What is it that flutters within our minds? Is it the model of development and consumption, which is shaped after that of affluent societies? I ask this question: what would happen to this planet if the people of India had the same number of cars per family as the Germans? How much oxygen would there be left for us to breathe? More clearly: Does the world today have the material elements to enable 7 or 8 billion people to enjoy the same level of consumption and squandering as the most affluent Western societies? WIll that ever be possible? Or will we have to start a different type of discussion one day? Because we have created this civilization in which we live: the progeny of the market, of the competition, which has begotten prodigious and explosive material progress. But the market economy has created market societies. And it has given us this globalization, which means being aware of the whole planet.

Are we ruling over globalization or is globalization ruling over us? Is it possible to speak of solidarity and of “being all together” in an economy based on ruthless competition? How far does our fraternity go?

I am not saying any of to undermine the importance of this event. On the contrary, the challenge ahead of us is of a colossal magnitude and the great crisis is not an ecological crisis, but rather a political one.

Today, man does not govern the forces he has unleashed, but rather, it is these forces that govern man; and life. Because we do not come into this planet simply to develop, just like that, indiscriminately. We come into this planet to be happy. Because life is short and it slips away from us. And no material belonging is worth as much as life, and this is fundamental.But if life is going to slip through my fingers, working and over-working in order to be able to consume more, and the consumer society is the engine-because ultimately, if consumption is paralyzed, the economy stops, and if you stop economy, the ghost of stagnation appears for each one of us, but it is this hyper-consumption that is harming the planet. And this hyper-consumption needs to be generated, making things that have a short useful life, in order to sell a lot. Thus, a light bulb cannot last longer than 1000 hours. But there are light bulbs that last 100,000 hours! But these cannot be manufactured, because the problem is the market, because we have to work and we have to sustain a civilization of “use and discard”, and so, we are trapped in a vicious cycle. These are problems of a political nature, which are showing us that it’s time to start fighting for a different culture.

I’m not talking about returning to the days of the caveman, or erecting a “monument to backwardness.” But we cannot continue like this, indefinitely, being ruled by the market, on the contrary, we have to rule over the market.

This is why I say, in my humble way of thinking, that the problem we are facing is political. The old thinkers. Epicurus, Seneca and even the Aymara put it this way, a poor person is not someone who has little but one who needs infinitely more, and more and more.” This is a cultural issue.

So I salute the efforts and agreements being made. And I will adhere to them, as a ruler. I know some things I’m saying are not easy to digest. But we must realize that the water crisis and the aggression to the environment is not the cause. The cause is the model of civilization that we have created. And the thing we have to re-examine is our way of life.

I belong to a small country well endowed with natural resources for life. In my country, there are a bit more than 3 million people. But there are about 13 million cows, some of the best in the world. And about 8 or 10 million excellent sheep. My country is an exporter of food, dairy, meat. It is a low-relief plain and almost 90% of the land is fertile.

My fellow workers, fought hard for the 8 hour workday. And now they are making that 6 hours. But the person who works 6 hours, gets two jobs, therefore, he works longer than before. But why? Because he needs to make monthly payments for: the motorcycle, the car, more and more payments, and when he’s done with that, he realizes he is a rheumatic old man, like me, and his life is already over.

And one asks this question: is this the fate of human life? These things I say are very basic: development cannot go against happiness. It has to work in favor of human happiness, of love on Earth, human relationships, caring for children, having friends, having our basic needs covered. Precisely because this is the most precious treasure we have; happiness. When we fight for the environment, we must remember that the essential element of the environment is called human happiness.

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